INTERCER develops certification schemes and standards for companies that request it and need it for their development
- Standards for supply chain
- Standard for cybersecurity
- Equality management systems development project
- Projects to develop bullying prevention systems
- Project development of quality management systems in the management of sports teams
- Digital signatures
Economic Functions of Standards
A standard can be defined generally as a construct that results from reasoned, collective choice and enables agreement on solutions of recurrent problems. Looked upon in this way, a standard can
be viewed as striking a balance between the requirements of users, the technological possibilities and associated costs of producers, and constraints imposed by government for the benefit of society in general
More functionally, an industry standard is a set of specifications to which all elements of products, processes, formats, or procedures under its jurisdiction must conform. The process of
standardization is the pursuit of this conformity, with the objective of increasing the efficiency of economic activity.
Standards played an important role in the industrial revolution. They allowed factories to achieve economies of scale and enabled markets to execute transactions in an equitable and efficient
manner. Standardization of parts made supplier specialization possible and increased efficiency over the entire product life cycle by facilitating part repair or replacement.
In a modern economy, standards constitute a pervasive infrastructure affecting the technologybased economy in a number of important and relatively complex ways. Some of these impacts even
appear contradictory. For example, whereas the traditional economic function of standards in production can restrict product choice in exchange for the cost advantages of economies of scale,
other types of standards common to advanced production and service systems can actually facilitate product variety and hence choice for the customer.
Standards are developed to specify acceptable product or service performance along one or more dimensions such as functional levels, performance variation, service lifetime, efficiency, safety,
and environmental impact. A standard that specifies a minimum level of performance often provides the point of departure for competition in an industry.
Standards help provide evaluated scientific and engineering information in the form of publications, electronic data bases, terminology, and test and measurement methods for describing,
quantifying, and evaluating product attributes. In technologically advanced manufacturing industries, a range of measurement and test method standards provide information, which, by virtue
of being universally accepted, greatly reduce transaction costs between buyer and seller.
In their absence, especially for complex, technology-based products, considerable disagreement will often ensue over verification of performance claims. These disputes raise the cost of consummating a marketplace transaction, which is reflected in higher prices charged. The economic impact is to slow market penetration.
Measurement methods are also essential to conduct state-of-the-art research.
In today’s semiconductor R&D, scientists and engineers must be able to measure the distances between individual atoms (dopants) that are added to silicon to achieve the desired millions of high-density electronic functions on a single chip. Standardization of some of these methods is essential for the efficiency of R&D itself. For example, being able to replicate and verify research results is often critical to obtaining follow-on research funding or commitment to commercialization.
Standardized scientific and engineering data (in the sense of having been critically evaluated and verified for accuracy) and standardized equipment calibration techniques are also essential for efficient R&D.
Finally, the typical manufacturing process is increasingly measurement intensive because of growing demands for quality and real-time process control. Traditional manufacturing processes
tested products after a production run. The inefficiency of this approach is large, not only because of the wasted material and labor when a production run must be scrapped, but also because of down .